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authorKent Overstreet <>2017-03-19 21:42:56 -0800
committerKent Overstreet <>2017-03-19 21:42:56 -0800
commite5b31f514e6bba36627af8d7d45fed55337f5740 (patch)
parent289d3e9581d72d5f5df7b1e3353b8f80b2ed9aa5 (diff)
1 files changed, 108 insertions, 0 deletions
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+Security hardening for bcachefs:
+PaX and grsecurity:
+Enable as many hardening features as you can. If the kernel fails to
+build, or if bcachefs causes problems at runtime, the kernel log will
+provide information on what caused the issues. The PaX size overflow
+plugin may require some additional attention, but that's explained below.
+Using grsecurity/PaX for finding bugs is an incredibly underrated but very
+effective technique. Any bug which is found in this way is a real bug, not
+something specific to these security patches. The latest version of
+grsecurity is always on Verify
+the GPG signature for the patch!
+RAP (Reuse Attack Protector) implements Control Flow Integrity, which
+defeats all sorts of code reuse attacks, most notably ROP. RAP is special
+because it is both forward and backward-edge CFI, and is fine-grained. The
+The public version is hash-based and deterministic. It can detect bugs
+because, in order to function, it requires all function pointer prototypes
+and function pointer calls to have the exact same signature. Even if the
+function pointer has an equivalent signature, it will not be compatible
+with RAP unless it is exactly identical. For example, a the prototype
+"void foo(struct bar)" may accept "void *baz = (struct bar)val" as the
+source of an argument, but it would make RAP very unhappy, and would
+trigger a kernel panic when the function is called with that (void *)
+argument. Information is available at
+PaX Size Overflow:
+See for information
+on its function. It requires a size overflow hash table which is generated
+for code in the upstream kernel, and the program used to generate it isn't
+public, so you'll need to understand how it works and instrument it. But
+once you get it correctly working, you will be able to detect a massive
+subset of size overflows. This is especially important for something like
+a filesystem which is going to have a lot of these issues. Due to an
+internal naming conflict, you'll have to disable signed integer overflow
+instrumentation in UBSan.
+This catches a subset of undefined behavior in code. It excludes a few
+overly aggressive checks or checks which people often intentionally abuse
+by default. Patch scripts/Makefile.ubsan to make it more aggressive by
+replacing its entire contents with the following:
+ CFLAGS_UBSAN += $(call cc-option, -fsanitize=undefined)
+ CFLAGS_UBSAN += $(call cc-option, -fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero)
+ CFLAGS_UBSAN += $(call cc-option, -fsanitize=float-cast-overflow
+ CFLAGS_UBSAN += $(call cc-option, -fno-sanitize=signed-integer-overflow)
+ CFLAGS_UBSAN += $(call cc-option, -Wno-maybe-uninitialized)
+Then set CONFIG_UBSAN=y and CONFIG_UBSAN_SANITIZE_ALL=n in the config, and
+add UBSAN_SANITIZE := y to the top bcachefs Makefile. Information about
+using UBSan is at
+It's extremely useful because it provides precise information about the
+exact type of overflow, what caused it, as well as the location. A neat
+feature of UBSan is that it can be used for security instead of just for
+debugging by using -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error, which traps to the
+ud2 CPU instruction, which, on x86 at least, triggers a fatal BUG().
+If for whatever reason the modified Makefile.ubsan doesn't work (due to a
+lack of traps for the extra sanitizers), revert it to its previous state,
+and only add the CONFIG_PAX_SIZE_OVERFLOW ifdef back.
+The kernel version of ASan. I'm sure you've been debugging with this, but
+just in case: It
+is not designed for hardening (unlike UBSan, which can, when configured
+properly), but it is great for detecting generic memory problems. Use GCC
+5.0 or later to get the best results.
+SLUB debugging:
+A simple bug useful way to debug memory allocations. You should use SLUB
+as your slab allocator, since it is not only the most secure, but supports
+extensive debugging. Boot with slub_debug=FZP to enable sanity checks (F),
+redzoning (Z), and poisoning (P). More documentation is available at
+Dynamic code analysis:
+It's very important to fuzz all bcachefs-related syscalls. This includes
+IOCTLs, as well as I/O syscalls like fallocate(), truncate(), open(), etc.
+The best syscall fuzzer currently is syzkaller, an instrumented fuzzer. It
+provides the best results when the above steps are used to make the kernel
+hyper-sensitive to bugs. An even more effective method is to plug the
+filesystem into AFL. This requires the KCOV framework. Oracle has written
+a fuzzer, and has finally released the source code on Github, along with
+example usage:
+Fuzzing may be especially effective when used with KTSan, an experimental
+data race detector made by Google:
+If you provide a virtual machine image with a fuzzer pre-configured, or
+one requiring minimal configuration, I can deploy it on about 100 logical
+cores (48 being on a high-end Xeon system), likely for as long as bugs are
+being found and are being attended to.
+Static code analysis:
+Checking code for mistakes with static code analysis tools helps find bugs
+which may not be discovered by fuzzers. It's also faster, and provides
+pointers to where code needs to be improved, even if it doesn't currently
+trigger a bug, because it may lead to one in the future. A big list is at
+ There's also
+scripts in the kernel directory for coconelle, and, of course, GCC itself,
+when providing its most aggressive warnings.