path: root/Documentation/rbtree.txt
diff options
authorPallipadi, Venkatesh <>2010-02-10 15:23:44 -0800
committerH. Peter Anvin <>2010-02-18 15:40:56 -0800
commit17d9ddc72fb8bba0d4f67868c9c612e472a594a9 (patch)
tree51c5e50f91eb060e346c129aa7403624934966d8 /Documentation/rbtree.txt
parent724e6d3fe8003c3f60bf404bf22e4e331327c596 (diff)
rbtree: Add support for augmented rbtrees
Add support for augmented rbtrees in core rbtree code. This will be used in subsequent patches, in x86 PAT code, which needs interval trees to efficiently keep track of PAT ranges. Signed-off-by: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> LKML-Reference: <> Signed-off-by: Suresh Siddha <> Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/rbtree.txt')
1 files changed, 58 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/rbtree.txt b/Documentation/rbtree.txt
index aae8355d3166..221f38be98f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/rbtree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rbtree.txt
@@ -190,3 +190,61 @@ Example:
for (node = rb_first(&mytree); node; node = rb_next(node))
printk("key=%s\n", rb_entry(node, struct mytype, node)->keystring);
+Support for Augmented rbtrees
+Augmented rbtree is an rbtree with "some" additional data stored in each node.
+This data can be used to augment some new functionality to rbtree.
+Augmented rbtree is an optional feature built on top of basic rbtree
+infrastructure. rbtree user who wants this feature will have an augment
+callback function in rb_root initialized.
+This callback function will be called from rbtree core routines whenever
+a node has a change in one or both of its children. It is the responsibility
+of the callback function to recalculate the additional data that is in the
+rb node using new children information. Note that if this new additional
+data affects the parent node's additional data, then callback function has
+to handle it and do the recursive updates.
+Interval tree is an example of augmented rb tree. Reference -
+"Introduction to Algorithms" by Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest and Stein.
+More details about interval trees:
+Classical rbtree has a single key and it cannot be directly used to store
+interval ranges like [lo:hi] and do a quick lookup for any overlap with a new
+lo:hi or to find whether there is an exact match for a new lo:hi.
+However, rbtree can be augmented to store such interval ranges in a structured
+way making it possible to do efficient lookup and exact match.
+This "extra information" stored in each node is the maximum hi
+(max_hi) value among all the nodes that are its descendents. This
+information can be maintained at each node just be looking at the node
+and its immediate children. And this will be used in O(log n) lookup
+for lowest match (lowest start address among all possible matches)
+with something like:
+find_lowest_match(lo, hi, node)
+ lowest_match = NULL;
+ while (node) {
+ if (max_hi(node->left) > lo) {
+ // Lowest overlap if any must be on left side
+ node = node->left;
+ } else if (overlap(lo, hi, node)) {
+ lowest_match = node;
+ break;
+ } else if (lo > node->lo) {
+ // Lowest overlap if any must be on right side
+ node = node->right;
+ } else {
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ return lowest_match;
+Finding exact match will be to first find lowest match and then to follow
+successor nodes looking for exact match, until the start of a node is beyond
+the hi value we are looking for.